SM: E. Current page2

Q: State Ohm’s law.

Answer: Ohm’s law states that the current (I) flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) across the two ends of the conductor, provided temperature, strain etc. are kept constant.  Mathematically, V = RI, where R is resistance of the conductor.

Q: What is resistivity (or specific resistance)?

Answer: Resistivity is a property of a material which determines the obstruction offered by the material to the flow of electric current through it. Its magnitude is equal to the resistance of a wire of the material of unit length and unit area of cross-section.

Its unit is ohm-metre (Ω m). 

Point to Remember: Resistivity of conductors increases with the increase in temperature; but resistivity of semi-conductors and insulators decreases with the increase in temperature.


Q: Define current density.

Ans: Current density (j) is defined as current per unit area normal to the current. Its unit is Am-2.

Q: Define electrical conductivity.

Ans: Electrical conductivity (σ) is defined as the reciprocal of resistivity (ρ).


[Note: An alternate form of Ohm’s law is:  j = σ E,  where E is uniform electric field in the conductor.

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